To resolve an Effect is to apply it. After resolving, and after the whole Chain (if created) has resolved, activated Cards will be sent to the Graveyard via game mechanics; unless it is a Continuous, Field, or Equip Card, or it has an Effect which keeps it on the Field, such as "Swords of Revealing Light", or moves it to another place like "Bait Doll". Any Card or Effect that activates must resolve, unless the activation itself was negated. If an Effect is negated, then it resolves without Effect.
Always the same Place
The Effects of Cards always activate and resolve in the same place. The location of the Card does not have anything to do with where the Effect resolves.
If "Effect Veiler" is negating a Card such as "Exiled Force" and then "Exiled Force" activates its Effect while Tributing itself as the cost, the Effect which is always on the field will be negated when it resolves. But "Exiled Force" will be sent to the Graveyard.
If "Destiny HERO - Malicious" is banished as a cost to activate its Effect, the Effect which is activated and resolved in the Graveyard will be negated by "Shadow-Imprisoning Mirror" when it resolves.